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初中英语难点“被动”语态用法全攻略,中考必考知识

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初中英语难点“被动”语态用法全攻略,中考必考知识

概念:语态(Voice)是动词的一种形式,用以表示主语和谓语之间的关系。

英语的语态包括两种形式:主动语态(active voice)和被动语态(passive voice)。主动语态表示主语是动作的执行者,被动语态表示主语是动作的承受者。被动语态是动词的一种特殊形式,一般来说,只有需要动作对象的及物动词才有被动语态。

主动语态表示主语是动作的执行者。巧记为:主动、主动、主去动。

Many people speak English.

谓语:speak的动作是由主语many people来执行的。

被动语态表示主语是动作的承受者,即行为动作的对象。巧记为:被动、被动、主被动。

English is spoken by many people.

主语English是动词speak的承受者。

He opened the door.

他开了门。(主动句)

The door was opened.

门被开了。(被动句)

构成

His bicycle was stolen.

The building has been built in 2000.

通过上面的例句,可以看出,

“被动语态”的构成是:be + 过去分词 ( + by + 动作执行者)形式

被动语态由助动词be加及物动词的过去分词构成,强调动作是由什么人或什么东西而发出时,常用介词“by +行为发出者”,即be+done+by+行为发出者。

被动语态可用于各种时态,通过助动词be的变化来表示:

1、一般现在时的被动语态. am / is / are + 动词的过去分词

Our classroom is cleaned every day.

This car is made in China.

2、一般过去式的被动语态: was / were + 动词的过去分词

His desk was cleaned just now.

The station was built in 1928.

3、现在进行时的被动语态: am / is / are + being + 动词的过去分词

A new factory is being built in our city now.

Some trees are being cut down in the park.

4、过去进行时的被动语态: was / were + being + 动词的过去分词

A new factory was being built in our city at that time.

Some babies were being looked after by Miss Chen last year.

5、一般将来时的被动语态:

(A) will / shall + be + 动词的过去分词

(B) am / is / are + going to be +动词的过去分词.

Some new factories will be built in our city this year.

Your watch is going to be mended in an hour.

6、过去将来时的被动语态:

(1)would / should + be + 动词的过去分词

(2)was / were +going to be + 动词的过去分词.

She said that some new factories would be built soon in our city.

He thought that your watch was going to be mended after an hour.

7、现在完成时的被动语态:have / has + been + 动词的过去分词

Some new factories have been built in the city since last year.

Your watch has been mended already.

8、过去完成时的被动语态:had + been + 动词的过去分词

He said that some new factories had been built in the city.

I didn’t know that my watch had been mended .

9、含情态动词的被动式:can/may/must + be + done

(1)You must hand in your homework after class.

Your homework must be handed in after class.

(2)He can write a letter with the computer.

A letter can be written with the computer by him.

初中英语八大时态:

一般现在时

一般过去时

一般将来时

现在进行时

过去进行时

过去将来时

现在完成时

过去进行时

运用:

第一种情况:不知道动作的执行者,就是不知道是谁干的。

Dan's bike was stolen last week.

丹的自行车上周被偷了。

My windows were broken yesterday.

我的窗户昨天被打烂了。

第二种情况:没有必要交代动作的执行者,就是说:不用说出来大家也知道谁干的。

Rice is also grown in North China.

华北地区也种水稻。

A new railway station will be built next year.

明年要建一座新的火车站。

第三种:为了强调动作的承受者。

这里我们比较一下主动和被动:

Prisoners of War built the bridge.

战俘修建了这座桥。

此句的主句是 Prisoners of War,是来回答 Who built the bridge? 这个问句,所以此句强调的是动作的执行者—战俘,交代战俘做了什么事。

变被动之后:

The bridge was built by Prisoners of War.

这座桥是被战俘修建的。

这样说的话,主语变成了“the bridge”—这座桥,此句是回答 What was built? 所以此句是强调“什么被建造”即强调动作的承受者。

又如:

The book was written by Shi Naian.

这本书是施耐庵写的。

以上是被动语态使用的三种情况或者说时机,第三种虽然强调动作的承受者,但一般也要交代动作的执行者,用 by + 执行者 来表达。

主动语态变成被动语态:

1、从句子意义上说,就是重新找出“什么事物”是“被完成”的。

主动语态:人们说英语。

People speak English in many countries.

被动语态:英语被说。

English is spoken in many countries..

主动语态:我们造这座桥。

We built this bridge last year.

被动语态:这座桥被建造。

This bridge was built last year.

2、从语法的角度说,把原句的宾语改成主语。

主动语态:小王邀请你(宾语)

Xiao Liu has invited you to a lunch party.

被动语态:你(宾语)被邀请。

You has been invited to a lunch party by Xiao Wang.

主动语态:你不准带走杂志(宾语)

You must not take these magazines out of the reading-room.

被动语态:杂志(宾语)不准被带走.

These magazines must not be taken out of the reading room.

主动语态:他们授给他(宾语)一枚奖章(宾语).

They gave him a medal for his wonderful work.

被动语态:他(宾语)被授予一枚奖章.

He was given a medal for his wonderful work.

被动语态:一枚奖章(宾语)被授给了他.

A medal was given to him for his wonderful work.

语态转换时所注意的问题:

1. 把主动语态变为被动语态,其谓语动词的时态要与原句时态保持一致,其谓语动词的数要与新主语保持一致。

We have bought a new computer.

A new computer has been bought.

A new computer have been bought. (错误)

2. 含有双宾语的主动句变被动句时,可分别将其中的一个宾语变为主语,另一个不动,一般变间接宾语为主语时比较多

My uncle gave me a present on my birthday.

I was given a present on my birthday.

如果把直接宾语(指物)改为主语,则在间接宾语(指人)前加适当的介词,如上句还可以说:

A present was given to me yesterday.

注意:1.一般在下列动词后,常在间接宾语前用介词 to,如:bring, give, hand, lend, offer, pass, pay, promise, sell, show, take, teach, tell 等。

(1) The book was showed to the class.

(2) My bike was lent to her.

2.一般在下列动词后,间接宾语前用介词 for, 如:build, buy, cook, cut, choose, do, fetch, find, fix, get, keep, make, order, paint, play, sing 等。

(1) A new skirt was made for me.

(2) The meat was cooked for us.

(3) Some country music was played for us.

3. 由动词+ 介词或副词构成的短语动词,要把它们作为整体看,即把它们看成一个及物动词,介词或副词不可拆开或漏掉。这类动词有:不及物动词+ 介词,如: agree to, ask for, laugh at, operated on, listen to, look after, think of, talk about 等。

The patient is being operated on. T

he problem is solved. It needn't be talked about.

及物动词+ 副词:如:bring about, carry out, find out, give up, hand in, make out, pass on, point out, put away, put off, think over, turn down, work out, turn out 等。

His request was turned down.

The sports meet will be put off because of the bad weather

4. 带复合宾语(宾语+ 宾补)的动词改为被动语态时,一般把主动结构中的宾语改为主语,而宾语补足语保留在谓语动词后面。

(1) We always keep the classroom clean.

→The classroom is always kept clean.

(2) She told us to follow her instructions.

→We were told to follow her instructions.

注意:在see, watch, hear, notice, listen to, look at, make, feel等动词后作宾语补足语的动词不定式都不带 to,但改成被动语态后都带to,这时不定式为主语补足语,也就是说不定式作主语补足语不存在省略to 的问题。

We often hear him play the guitar.

→He is often heard to play the guitar.

5. 当主动句的主语是nobody, no one等含有否定意义的不定代词时,被动句中将其变为anybody,作by的宾语,并将谓语动词变为否定的被动语态。

Nobody can answer this question.

误:The question can be answered by nobody.

正:The question can not be answered by anybody.

6. 当否定句中的宾语是anything, anybody, anyone等不定代词时,在被动句中应将其分别变为nothing, nobody, no one作主语,并将谓语动词变为肯定的被动语态。

They haven't done anything to make the river clean.

误:Anything hasn't been done to make the river clean.

正:Nothing has been done to make the river clean.

7. 以who为主语开头的疑问句,变被动时,用by whom放在句首:

Who wrote the story?

误:Who was the story written?

正:By whom was the story written?

8. 有些动词既是及物又是不及物,当它们和well, badly, easily等副词连用时,表示主语内在品质或性能,是不及物动词,用主动表示被动,这时不用被动语态,常见的有:write, read, clean, sell, wash, cook 等。

(1)The cloth washes easily. 这布很好洗。

(2)The new product sells well. 这新产品很畅销。

对比:The books sell well. (主动句)

The books were sold out. (被动句)

The meat didn’t cook well. (主动句)

The meat was cooked for a long time. (被动句)

9. 下列情况主动句不能改为被动句:

第一,感官系动词一般用主动形式表示被动意义,如:feel,look, seem, taste, sound, remain等。

(1)— Do you like the material?

— Yes, it feels very soft.

误:It is felt very soft.

(2)The food tastes delicious.

误:The food is tasted delicious.

(3)The pop music sounds beautiful.

误:The pop music is sounded beautiful.

第二,谓语是及物动词leave, enter, reach, suit, have, benefit, lack, own等。

He entered the room and got his book.

误:The room was entered and his book was got.

She had her hand burned.

误:Her hand was had burned.

第三,一些不及物动词短语没有被动语态:take place, break out, belong to, lose heart, consist of, add up to等。

The fire broke out in the capital building.

误:The fire was broke out in the capital building.

第四,不及物动词没有被动语态,如:rise, happen, succeed, remain, lie等。

When we got to the top of the mountain, the sun had already risen.

误:The sun had already been risen.

After the earthquake, few houses remained.

误:After the earthquake, few houses were remained.

第五,宾语是反身代词,相互代词,同源宾语,不定式,v-ing形式及抽象名词等,不能变为被动句子的主语,

如:I taught myself English.

误:Myself was taught English.

We love each other.

误:Each other is loved.

初中教材中与被动语态相关的句型:

1.be covered with被……覆盖

2.be made of由……制作(发生物理变化)

be made from由……制作(发生化学变化)

be made in由(某地)制造

be made by被(某人)制造

3.be used for被用来……

be used as被当作(作为)……来使用

be used to do sth.被用来做某事

4.It is said that…据说……

It is hoped that…希望……

It is well known that…众所周知……例如:

几种特殊的被动语态:

1.带不定式的被动语态。

The child is sure to be punished for that.

那个孩子肯定会因为那件事受罚的。

2. 带介词的动词短语的被动语态。

Such a thing has never been heard of.

这件事前所未闻。

3. 带副词的动词短语的被动语态。

The radio has just been turned off.

收音机刚刚被关上。

4. 当sell, wash, clean, run, ride, wear, write等动词若有状语well, easily, badly来修饰时,用主动形式表达被动意义。

The pen writes well.

这枝钢笔写字流畅。

The book sells well.

这本书很畅销。

形式为主动,意义为被动。(中考难点)

1.由少数及物动词转化来的不及物动词(sell, clean, wash, cut, drive, wear, write等),当句子的主语为物时,可用主动形式表被动意义。

The car drives well.

The cloth washes easily.

2.在be worth doing, need doing中,主语是物,doing表示被动意义。

The book is worth reading.

The tree needs watering.

3.形容词 cheap, dangerous, important, comfortable, interesting等接不定式做状语时,不定式的主动形式表被动意义。

The old lady is easy to get along with.

The question is difficult to answer.

4.感官动词look, sound, taste, smell, feel等,主动语态表被动意义。

You look unhappy.

The cake tastes delicious.

巧记口诀:

一般现在时、一般过去时用be +及物动词的.过去分词,be有人称、时、数变。

完成时态have(has)done,

被动将been加中间。

一般将来shall(will)do,

被动变do为be done。

将来进行无被动,

shall(will)be doing。

现在完成时,被动 have(has)been done。

现、过进行be doing,

被动be加being done。

情、助、有、是妥安排,一律随新主语变。

否定助后加not,疑问一助置主前。

主语恰是疑问词,直陈语序主在前。

一般情助加be done,双宾多将间宾变。

复合宾语宾变主,宾补、主补相应变。


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