英语的语态包括两种形式：主动语态(active voice)和被动语态(passive voice)。主动语态表示主语是动作的执行者，被动语态表示主语是动作的承受者。被动语态是动词的一种特殊形式，一般来说，只有需要动作对象的及物动词才有被动语态。
Many people speak English.
English is spoken by many people.
He opened the door.
The door was opened.
His bicycle was stolen.
The building has been built in 2000.
“被动语态”的构成是：be + 过去分词 ( + by + 动作执行者)形式
1、一般现在时的被动语态. am / is / are + 动词的过去分词
Our classroom is cleaned every day.
This car is made in China.
2、一般过去式的被动语态: was / were + 动词的过去分词
His desk was cleaned just now.
The station was built in 1928.
3、现在进行时的被动语态: am / is / are + being + 动词的过去分词
A new factory is being built in our city now.
Some trees are being cut down in the park.
4、过去进行时的被动语态: was / were + being + 动词的过去分词
A new factory was being built in our city at that time.
Some babies were being looked after by Miss Chen last year.
(A) will / shall + be + 动词的过去分词
(B) am / is / are + going to be +动词的过去分词.
Some new factories will be built in our city this year.
Your watch is going to be mended in an hour.
(1)would / should + be + 动词的过去分词
(2)was / were +going to be + 动词的过去分词.
She said that some new factories would be built soon in our city.
He thought that your watch was going to be mended after an hour.
7、现在完成时的被动语态:have / has + been + 动词的过去分词
Some new factories have been built in the city since last year.
Your watch has been mended already.
8、过去完成时的被动语态:had + been + 动词的过去分词
He said that some new factories had been built in the city.
I didn’t know that my watch had been mended .
9、含情态动词的被动式：can/may/must + be + done
(1)You must hand in your homework after class.
Your homework must be handed in after class.
(2)He can write a letter with the computer.
A letter can be written with the computer by him.
Dan's bike was stolen last week.
My windows were broken yesterday.
Rice is also grown in North China.
A new railway station will be built next year.
Prisoners of War built the bridge.
此句的主句是 Prisoners of War，是来回答 Who built the bridge? 这个问句，所以此句强调的是动作的执行者—战俘，交代战俘做了什么事。
The bridge was built by Prisoners of War.
这样说的话，主语变成了“the bridge”—这座桥，此句是回答 What was built? 所以此句是强调“什么被建造”即强调动作的承受者。
The book was written by Shi Naian.
以上是被动语态使用的三种情况或者说时机，第三种虽然强调动作的承受者，但一般也要交代动作的执行者，用 by + 执行者 来表达。
People speak English in many countries.
English is spoken in many countries..
We built this bridge last year.
This bridge was built last year.
Xiao Liu has invited you to a lunch party.
You has been invited to a lunch party by Xiao Wang.
You must not take these magazines out of the reading-room.
These magazines must not be taken out of the reading room.
They gave him a medal for his wonderful work.
He was given a medal for his wonderful work.
A medal was given to him for his wonderful work.
We have bought a new computer.
A new computer has been bought.
A new computer have been bought. （错误）
My uncle gave me a present on my birthday.
I was given a present on my birthday.
A present was given to me yesterday.
注意：1.一般在下列动词后，常在间接宾语前用介词 to，如：bring, give, hand, lend, offer, pass, pay, promise, sell, show, take, teach, tell 等。
(1) The book was showed to the class.
(2) My bike was lent to her.
2.一般在下列动词后，间接宾语前用介词 for, 如：build, buy, cook, cut, choose, do, fetch, find, fix, get, keep, make, order, paint, play, sing 等。
(1) A new skirt was made for me.
(2) The meat was cooked for us.
(3) Some country music was played for us.
3. 由动词+ 介词或副词构成的短语动词，要把它们作为整体看，即把它们看成一个及物动词，介词或副词不可拆开或漏掉。这类动词有：不及物动词+ 介词，如: agree to, ask for, laugh at, operated on, listen to, look after, think of, talk about 等。
The patient is being operated on. T
he problem is solved. It needn't be talked about.
及物动词+ 副词：如：bring about, carry out, find out, give up, hand in, make out, pass on, point out, put away, put off, think over, turn down, work out, turn out 等。
His request was turned down.
The sports meet will be put off because of the bad weather
4. 带复合宾语(宾语+ 宾补)的动词改为被动语态时，一般把主动结构中的宾语改为主语，而宾语补足语保留在谓语动词后面。
(1) We always keep the classroom clean.
→The classroom is always kept clean.
(2) She told us to follow her instructions.
→We were told to follow her instructions.
注意：在see, watch, hear, notice, listen to, look at, make, feel等动词后作宾语补足语的动词不定式都不带 to，但改成被动语态后都带to，这时不定式为主语补足语，也就是说不定式作主语补足语不存在省略to 的问题。
We often hear him play the guitar.
→He is often heard to play the guitar.
5. 当主动句的主语是nobody, no one等含有否定意义的不定代词时，被动句中将其变为anybody,作by的宾语，并将谓语动词变为否定的被动语态。
Nobody can answer this question.
误：The question can be answered by nobody.
正：The question can not be answered by anybody.
6. 当否定句中的宾语是anything, anybody, anyone等不定代词时，在被动句中应将其分别变为nothing, nobody, no one作主语，并将谓语动词变为肯定的被动语态。
They haven't done anything to make the river clean.
误：Anything hasn't been done to make the river clean.
正：Nothing has been done to make the river clean.
7. 以who为主语开头的疑问句，变被动时，用by whom放在句首：
Who wrote the story?
误：Who was the story written?
正：By whom was the story written?
8. 有些动词既是及物又是不及物，当它们和well, badly, easily等副词连用时，表示主语内在品质或性能，是不及物动词，用主动表示被动，这时不用被动语态，常见的有：write, read, clean, sell, wash, cook 等。
(1)The cloth washes easily. 这布很好洗。
(2)The new product sells well. 这新产品很畅销。
对比：The books sell well. (主动句)
The books were sold out. (被动句)
The meat didn’t cook well. (主动句)
The meat was cooked for a long time. (被动句)
第一，感官系动词一般用主动形式表示被动意义，如：feel，look, seem, taste, sound, remain等。
(1)— Do you like the material?
— Yes, it feels very soft.
误：It is felt very soft.
(2)The food tastes delicious.
误：The food is tasted delicious.
(3)The pop music sounds beautiful.
误：The pop music is sounded beautiful.
第二，谓语是及物动词leave, enter, reach, suit, have, benefit, lack, own等。
He entered the room and got his book.
误：The room was entered and his book was got.
She had her hand burned.
误：Her hand was had burned.
第三，一些不及物动词短语没有被动语态：take place, break out, belong to, lose heart, consist of, add up to等。
The fire broke out in the capital building.
误：The fire was broke out in the capital building.
第四，不及物动词没有被动语态，如：rise, happen, succeed, remain, lie等。
When we got to the top of the mountain, the sun had already risen.
误：The sun had already been risen.
After the earthquake, few houses remained.
误：After the earthquake, few houses were remained.
如：I taught myself English.
误：Myself was taught English.
We love each other.
误：Each other is loved.
1.be covered with被……覆盖
2.be made of由……制作(发生物理变化)
be made from由……制作(发生化学变化)
be made in由(某地)制造
be made by被(某人)制造
3.be used for被用来……
be used as被当作(作为)……来使用
be used to do sth.被用来做某事
4.It is said that…据说……
It is hoped that…希望……
It is well known that…众所周知……例如：
The child is sure to be punished for that.
Such a thing has never been heard of.
The radio has just been turned off.
4. 当sell, wash, clean, run, ride, wear, write等动词若有状语well, easily, badly来修饰时，用主动形式表达被动意义。
The pen writes well.
The book sells well.
1.由少数及物动词转化来的不及物动词(sell, clean, wash, cut, drive, wear, write等)，当句子的主语为物时，可用主动形式表被动意义。
The car drives well.
The cloth washes easily.
2.在be worth doing, need doing中，主语是物，doing表示被动意义。
The book is worth reading.
The tree needs watering.
3.形容词 cheap, dangerous, important, comfortable, interesting等接不定式做状语时，不定式的主动形式表被动意义。
The old lady is easy to get along with.
The question is difficult to answer.
4.感官动词look, sound, taste, smell, feel等，主动语态表被动意义。
You look unhappy.
The cake tastes delicious.
现在完成时，被动 have(has)been done。